Kidney failure is a serious condition that can be fatal if it is not promptly treated. As such, owners should be able to recognize the symptoms of this disease in their pets. Here, our Denver vets discuss the symptoms and treatment of kidney failure in cats.
What is kidney failure in cats?
Kidney failure (also known as renal failure) can be caused by a number of conditions that affect the kidneys and related organs.
Healthy kidneys eliminate waste from the blood, maintain a normal electrolyte balance, regulate hydration and calcium, manage blood pressure and stimulate production of red blood cells. If your cat experiences kidney failure, the kidneys are no longer functioning efficiently.
Are there different types of kidney failure in cats?
There are two types of kidney failure in cats, and they differ in causes, treatment options and prognosis.
Acute Renal Failure
This type of kidney failure occurs suddenly, within days or weeks. It can happen in cats of any age and typically results from poisons, disorders, diseases, organ failure, medications and other causes.
Acute renal failure can often be reversed if caught in time.
Chronic Kidney Failure
With chronic kidney failure, the kidneys gradually stop working over months or years as they lose the ability to filter the blood of toxins. This type of kidney failure can lead to total kidney failure.
What causes kidney failure in cats?
The filtering system in your cat’s kidneys consists of thousands of microscopic tubes (nephrons). While a kidney will still work if some nephrons are damaged, if too many nephrons stop working too suddenly for the good nephrons to compensate, the kidneys can fail.
Here are some common causes of both acute and chronic kidney failure in cats:
- Clotting disorders
- Low blood pressure (hypotension)
- Heart failure
- Acute Kidney Failure
- Ingestion of toxins or harmful substances (toxic plants, antifreeze, rat poison, human medications)
- Bacterial infection (the urinary tract becomes infected with bacteria, which travel to the kidneys)
- Illnesses such as cancer
Chronic Kidney Failure
- Autoimmune diseases (in which the immune system attacks the body’s organs)
- Cysts (which grow and destroy tissues in the kidneys)
Symptoms of Kidney Failure
If your cat’s kidneys aren’t removing waste from his or her body, you may notice many signs. General symptoms of kidney failure in cats can include:
- Weight loss
- Lack of appetite
- Bad breath
- Diarrhea (may contain blood)
- Vomiting (may contain blood)
- Excess thirst
Additionally, indications of acute kidney failure include an arched back or stiff-legged gait (a symptom that your cat’s kidneys are causing pain), and either frequent or no urination.
Because chronic kidney failure may gradually progress over years, you may not notice it. By the time you see symptoms, the disease may already have advanced.
However, with appropriate treatment some cats that have experienced chronic kidney failure live a good quality of life for years to come.
What are the symptoms of end stage kidney failure in cats?
Sometimes, the signs of kidney failure in cats are not caught early enough and the disease progresses to its end stage. Symptoms of end stage kidney failure in cats include general symptoms listed above, as well as dull, sunken eyes, inability to walk, body odor, incontinence in bladder or bowels seizures, confusion, refusal to eat or drink, twitching, blindness, pacing and restlessness, withdrawing, hiding and running away.
Though more than one of these symptoms will be present, you may not see all of them. There may also be a sudden improvement in their symptoms, but do not let this fool you.
How is kidney failure in cats treated?
The goal of treating kidney failure is to slow the progression of the disease and manage symptoms. Depending on the symptoms and their stages, treatment options may include intravenous fluids to correct dehydration, vitamin injections, medication to manage nausea, supplements to correct low potassium levels, and other measures.
For cats with end stage kidney failure, nursing them in their final days will mean keeping them warm and comfortable, with food, water and a litter box nearby, as well as lots of quiet human companionship.
Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.